windows network configuration

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foreword

Windows operating system is one of the two mainstream network operating systems, so the relevant basic knowledge and corresponding network management and configuration instructions often appear in the exams over the years. Next, I will briefly introduce the network configuration of windows.

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Domain Model and Active Directory

The domain model is a scheme for centralizing network management and security policies in the windows system. Each domain has a primary domain controller (PDC, responsible for saving all user accounts, groups and security settings in the domain and other data) to the workstation to which it belongs. When the scale of the domain is relatively large, a backup domain controller can be installed to alleviate the problem. Administration of the primary domain controller.
For smaller networks, only one domain needs to be set, which is called a single-domain model ; while for larger networks, it can be divided into multiple domains. Domains can be divided into three types according to their management:

domain model number of main domains Account management trust relationship
main domain model 1 The primary domain is the account domain All other domains trust this domain
Multi-Master Domain Model a small amount All network accounts are established on one of the primary domains Mutual trust between primary domains
full trust model multiple separate Inter-Domain Full Trust

In the Windows 2000 operating system, the domain management method in NT is abandoned, and the directory management technology, namely Active Directory (AD) service, is adopted. AD is based on a system design in LDAP format, which stores information about network elements in the form of objects , providing a full tree-like hierarchical view. The object model in AD is called a schema , which is used to define the description of the category domain attributes of an object. The logical units of AD include domains (core units, container objects, which can include basic objects such as computers, users, etc.), organizational units (used to organize objects in a domain into logical groups), domain trees (a [collection] service, is adopted. AD is based on a system design in LDAP format, which stores information about network elements in the form of objects , providing a full tree-like hierarchical view. The object model in AD is called a schema , which is used to define the description of the category domain attributes of an object. The logical units of AD include domains (core units, container objects, which can include basic objects such as computers, users, etc.), organizational units (used to organize objects in a domain into logical groups), domain trees (a [collection] of domains), and domain forests. (A collection of domain trees, associated with trust relationships). A domain forest includes a domain tree, which consists of domains, which consist of basic objects and can be divided into different organizational units.

Major network protocols supported:

protocol illustrate working layer
NetBeUi NetBIOS extended user interface protocol, small and fast, but does not have routing function working layer
IPX/SPX Novell Netware Network Protocol network layer/transport layer
TCP/IP Standard, routable, reliable protocol Transport Layer / Network Layer
DHCP Dynamic IP Address Configuration Protocol
WINS Complete IP address and NetBIOS mapping

network structure

The network structure of Windows NT is shown in Figure 15-2. Among them, NDIS refers to the network driver interface specification, and TDI refers to the transport driver interface.

The network architecture of Windows 2000 includes network API (providing a protocol-independent communication method for applications), TDI (kernel-mode device driver, TDI client from the I/O request sent to the protocol driver group-IRP get its own name from it), TDI transmitter (a protocol driver in the core state, responsible for receiving IRPs from TDI clients, it makes reassembly, serialization, acknowledgment and retransmission transparent, and simplifies the network communication of the application), The NDIS library (provides a package for the adapter driver) and the NDIS portlet driver (the driver working in the kernel mode, responsible for connecting the TDI receiver to a specific network device, it will use NDIS when communicating with the network adapter, library functions, these functions are mapped as hardware abstraction layer-HAL functions).

Windows file system

After Windows NT, the new technology file system NTFS was introduced to replace the original FAT (including FAT 32 introduced by Windows 95) file system. NTFS can support larger partition space, faster speed, better security (can realize automatic error repair, can realize file-level security), and support file compression function.

Windows Network Configuration Commands

  • winipcfg: IP address configuration command under Windows.
  • ipconfig command: used to display TCP/IP configuration, the following are some common command options.

ipconfig /all // show all configuration information
ipconfig /release // release IP address
ipconfig /renew // To obtain an IP address again, it will send a request to the DHCP server
ipconifg /flushdns // Flush DNS resolver cache
ipconfig /registerdns/ /Renew all DHCP leases and re-register DNS domains
ipconfig /displaydns // Display DNS resolver cache
ipconfig /setclassid // set DHCP class ID

  • ping command: Based on ICMP protocol, it is used to send a test packet to the specified address, and if everything is normal, it will return a successful response. It is commonly used in the following situations.
    • Verify that the TCP/IP protocol is installed normally: ping 127.0.0.1, if it returns normally, the installation is successful. where 127.0.0.1 is the loopback address.
    • Verify that the IP address configuration is normal: ping the remote host IP address.
    • Check the remote host: ping the remote host IP address.
  • nbtstat: used to display the statistics of NetBIOS protocol and the correspondence between NetBIOS addresses and IP addresses.

netstat -a       // Displays all connections and listening ports 
netstat -e       // Displays Ethernet statistics 
netstat -n       // Displays IP addresses in numeric format 
netstat -o       // Displays the process ID to which each connection belongs 
netstat -p       // Displays Protocol-specific connections 
netstat -r       //Display routing table 
nttstat -s       //Display statistics for each protocol

  • tracert: Used to view the packet link path.

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