It is recommended to optimize the video key frame extraction method, which has been packaged into a tool class, and the code has been optimized for better performance and effect.
Another way to extract keyframes from video before sync:
The key code is as follows:
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- """ this key frame extract algorithm is based on interframe difference. The principle is very simple First, we load the video and compute the interframe difference between each frames Then, we can choose one of these three methods to extract keyframes, which are all based on the difference method: 1. use the difference order The first few frames with the largest average interframe difference are considered to be key frames. 2. use the difference threshold The frames which the average interframe difference are large than the threshold are considered to be key frames. 3. use local maximum The frames which the average interframe difference are local maximum are considered to be key frames. It should be noted that smoothing the average difference value before calculating the local maximum can effectively remove noise to avoid repeated extraction of frames of similar scenes. After a few experiment, the third method has a better key frame extraction effect. """ import cv2 import operator import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import sys from scipy.signal import argrelextrema def smooth(x, window_len=13, window='hanning'): """smooth the data using a window with requested size. This method is based on the convolution of a scaled window with the signal. The signal is prepared by introducing reflected copies of the signal (with the window size) in both ends so that transient parts are minimized in the begining and end part of the output signal. input: x: the input signal window_len: the dimension of the smoothing window window: the type of window from 'flat', 'hanning', 'hamming', 'bartlett', 'blackman' flat window will produce a moving average smoothing. output: the smoothed signal example: import numpy as np t = np.linspace(-2,2,0.1) x = np.sin(t)+np.random.randn(len(t))*0.1 y = smooth(x) see also: numpy.hanning, numpy.hamming, numpy.bartlett, numpy.blackman, numpy.convolve scipy.signal.lfilter TODO: the window parameter could be the window itself if an array instead of a string """ print(len(x), window_len) # if x.ndim != 1: # raise ValueError, "smooth only accepts 1 dimension arrays." # # if x.size < window_len: # raise ValueError, "Input vector needs to be bigger than window size." # # if window_len < 3: # return x # # if not window in ['flat', 'hanning', 'hamming', 'bartlett', 'blackman']: # raise ValueError, "Window is on of 'flat', 'hanning', 'hamming', 'bartlett', 'blackman'" s = np.r_[2 * x - x[window_len:1:-1], x, 2 * x[-1] - x[-1:-window_len:-1]] # print(len(s)) if window == 'flat': # moving average w = np.ones(window_len, 'd') else: w = getattr(np, window)(window_len) y = np.convolve(w / w.sum(), s, mode='same') return y[window_len - 1:-window_len + 1] class Frame: """class to hold information about each frame """ def __init__(self, id, diff): self.id = id self.diff = diff def __lt__(self, other): if self.id == other.id: return self.id < other.id return self.id < other.id def __gt__(self, other): return other.__lt__(self) def __eq__(self, other): return self.id == other.id and self.id == other.id def __ne__(self, other): return not self.__eq__(other) def rel_change(a, b): x = (b - a) / max(a, b) print(x) return x if __name__ == "__main__": print(sys.executable) # Setting fixed threshold criteria USE_THRESH = True # fixed threshold value THRESH = 0.87 # Setting fixed threshold criteria USE_TOP_ORDER = False # Number of top sorted frames NUM_TOP_FRAMES = 50 # Setting local maxima criteria USE_LOCAL_MAXIMA = False # Video path of the source file # videopath = 'pikachu.mp4' videopath = 'e956ed44fffe4bfb97cf23474fb48ef3.avi' # Directory to store the processed frames dir = './extract_result/' # smoothing window size len_window = int(50) print("target video :" + videopath) print("frame save directory: " + dir) # load video and compute diff between frames cap = cv2.VideoCapture(str(videopath)) curr_frame = None prev_frame = None frame_diffs =  frames =  success, frame = cap.read() i = 0 while (success): luv = cv2.cvtColor(frame, cv2.COLOR_BGR2LUV) curr_frame = luv if curr_frame is not None and prev_frame is not None: # logic here diff = cv2.absdiff(curr_frame, prev_frame) diff_sum = np.sum(diff) diff_sum_mean = diff_sum / (diff.shape * diff.shape) frame_diffs.append(diff_sum_mean) frame = Frame(i, diff_sum_mean) frames.append(frame) prev_frame = curr_frame i = i + 1 success, frame = cap.read() cap.release() # compute keyframe keyframe_id_set = set() if USE_TOP_ORDER: # sort the list in descending order frames.sort(key=operator.attrgetter("diff"), reverse=True) for keyframe in frames[:NUM_TOP_FRAMES]: keyframe_id_set.add(keyframe.id) if USE_THRESH: print("Using Threshold") for i in range(1, len(frames)): if (rel_change(np.float(frames[i - 1].diff), np.float(frames[i].diff)) >= THRESH): keyframe_id_set.add(frames[i].id) if USE_LOCAL_MAXIMA: print("Using Local Maxima") diff_array = np.array(frame_diffs) sm_diff_array = smooth(diff_array, len_window) frame_indexes = np.asarray(argrelextrema(sm_diff_array, np.greater)) for i in frame_indexes: keyframe_id_set.add(frames[i - 1].id) plt.figure(figsize=(40, 20)) plt.locator_params(numticks=100) plt.stem(sm_diff_array) plt.savefig(dir + 'plot.png') # save all keyframes as image cap = cv2.VideoCapture(str(videopath)) curr_frame = None keyframes =  success, frame = cap.read() idx = 0 while (success): if idx in keyframe_id_set: name = "keyframe_" + str(idx) + ".jpg" cv2.imwrite(dir + name, frame) keyframe_id_set.remove(idx) idx = idx + 1 success, frame = cap.read() cap.release()
The results are as follows:
After the local test, by setting the threshold, the effect is better,
The larger the THRESH, the less keyframes are retained, otherwise, the more.
After the key frame is extracted, it is about 500 branches of all the frames of the original video.