[Academic related] Suggestions for postgraduate study by past students

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Some students asked: How should I plan for the postgraduate stage? Do you have any research and life advice? Hear the advice of those who have passed:

Author: Pickled Cabbage
Link:
/question/429256719/answer/1637877797Source
: Zhihu

1. General tasks of graduate students at different stages

1. Graduate first year:

Mainly to learn some basic knowledge, experimental skills, literature reading and retrieval, as well as have a preliminary to moderate understanding of their own research field, and have the ability to talk about the mechanism behind literature search and prepare a proposal report.

During this stage, focus on unlocking various knowledge and skills. If you have spare energy, you can participate in some extracurricular activities and competitions. If possible, make a few friends who are willing to communicate and learn from each other, and make progress together.

“A person walks faster, a group of people walks farther” should be exactly this principle. Of course, at this stage, the most wanted to win the favor and trust of the boss, often in the bed late at night secretly look at the chat records between himself and the boss and teachers, carefully, and often reflect, is today the boss’s cutie?

2. During the second research period:

After preliminary exploration and pre-experiment, and after completing the opening report, it is time to start the formal experiment. It is necessary to concentrate on the experiment and correct attitude, and learn the writing of the paper (SCI) (various lectures and online resources) while trying to perfect the experiment.

This time is usually the peak moment of graduate students. The new junior brothers and sisters are calling, they are separated from the jurisdiction of the senior brothers and sisters, their wings are gradually growing, and they become the boss’s favorite!

3. Three stages of research:

From September to October, the experimental data collection was basically completed, and the paper content including the experimental method was written. Learn analysis and drawing software, write papers for submission and graduation thesis. Those who are preparing for the exam can also start preparing!

The next semester is basically a variety of entrance examinations or job recruitment examinations and graduation defenses! Needless to say, this part is of course the most tiring and dog-friendly, and it is also the time when the scalp is getting colder.

In a word, addicted to scientific research, unable to extricate oneself and getting fat, basically say goodbye to the little cute little puppy! !

2. Learning modes at different stages

Just like “High school is a high school for a group of people, and a university is a university for you alone.” From high school to undergraduate to graduate students are different learning stages, and adjustments need to be made in the face of different living and learning environments.

It is true that some graduate students with strong scientific research ability will feel like a duck in water – not only well-adjusted, but also growing rapidly. But it ‘s too painful for the vast majority of people . After all, we all know that starting from scratch with no one to show the way can be difficult.

When you first come into contact with scientific research, you don’t even know where the threshold is, let alone salvaging the so-called scientific research inspiration in the vast literature.

And because of this loss, the seemingly long postgraduate/doctoral time was wasted in the idle life of stocking up day by day, and in the end, Yanbi became a sure thing after nothing. son .

But there are always more ideas than problems, and some friends who are unwilling to give up on themselves just hold back their blood and finally work on the subject themselves and barely survive. And it wasn’t until before the defense that he was asked by the instructor:”What are you doing?”I couldn’t be more wronged!

It’s no wonder that these students are full of complaints. However, “Too much complaining prevents heartbreak, and you should look at the scenery.” In all things, the person who needs to be most responsible is always yourself, followed by others, and you still have to walk your own way.

Instead of feeling that the road is difficult, it is better to set off immediately. As the saying goes: You will win if you love to work hard. Since you are stocked by your mentor, if you want to publish SCI and graduate successfully, you can only rely on yourself to work hard, and you can truly set yourself aside and survive.

First, there are two rules to keep in mind:

1. You’d better define your research project early

Generally speaking, the tutors who are stocking students are mostly because they have shifted their focus from academic research to administrative positions, so that they have no time to manage students, so the students who are stocked will live and study more freely.

Perhaps, the supervisor can take time to guide you and help you solve the problems in the process of graduate training and experimental funding to a certain extent , but he will probably not tell you what to do next in your research – these things all depend on to yourself.

Considering that your degree still needs to be earned by yourself, the students who have been released must not live too comfortably . They must figure out what they are going to do, and discuss with their supervisors to determine the research direction.

Then you can make a detailed experimental plan based on your own ideas, and implement it step by step, while making continuous progress in reflection. If you need guidance during this period, please contact the tutor in time – that is their job.

2. The biggest difference between master and doctoral students and undergraduates is the ability to deal with unknown things independently.

The current Internet era is not only the era of the lowest learning cost, but also the era of the most convenient access to information. If you have any questions in scientific research, the search engine can help you, and what you have to do is to screen and process the information, and then output it.

In addition, to maximize one’s own subjective initiative , it is necessary to seek help more actively and proactively. For example, if you are going to learn the knowledge and skills of others, you have to go to him/her, because they will not come to you.

In the final analysis, as a student, you must constantly step out of your comfort zone and take the initiative to grow. When the surrounding environment cannot satisfy you, you need to expand your own space and obtain corresponding resources.

Seven coup

There are a few key points to keep in mind when implementing this into specifics:

1. Based on literature, find scientific research ideas!

Generally, as a first-year graduate student, mainly by learning some basic knowledge (such as experimental skills, literature reading and retrieval), in order to achieve the purpose of having a preliminary to moderate understanding of their research field.

The focus is on unlocking various knowledge and skills with great concentration. Among them, literature retrieval and reading skills can be said to be particularly important.

You can combine the existing research topics of the research group, read a lot of literature for one or two research directions, and grasp the scale of intensive reading and extensive reading of the literature, and then you can stand on the shoulders of predecessors to identify and solve problems.

Usually the review first, then the treatise . By reading the review, you can know the basic knowledge and discipline level in the research field, and understand the current major progress and trends; while reading the monograph, you can master the experimental methods, common patterns and general routines of various researches.

2. Do a good job of time management and carry out scientific research reasonably

The time to study for a master’s degree and a doctoral degree seems to be a long time, but in fact it passes by in a short time. Although the free-range life is free, it should be remembered that there is only a fine line between self-discipline and indulgence. If freedom is too much, it becomes indulgence .

The teacher’s lack of supervision cannot be an excuse for you to be lax in your studies, otherwise you will be blind when you graduate. Although your supervisor does not regularly ask you to learn about research, you must be aware of the progress of the project yourself, and you must grasp the rhythm when completing experiments, writing articles, and submitting manuscripts.

3. Hold the thighs of brothers and sisters tightly and avoid detours

In the laboratory, seniors and seniors are the people closest to you besides the mentor . As the most reliable friends who are most familiar with the experimental frontier in your field, they can take you to quickly understand the research direction of the research group and understand the style of the tutor.

The most important thing is that they may have experienced the academic difficulties you face, and they can help you avoid many detours. They are the most suitable leaders on your scientific research journey .

Can’t read the literature? ask! The instrument doesn’t work? study! Can’t write an article? At this time, if you don’t hold your brothers and sisters’ thighs tightly, when will you wait?

Therefore, you should cherish the opportunity of your brothers and sisters to work with you: firstly , you will learn techniques to gain insight, and secondly, when you work independently, you will be able to help you complete your work faster.

What must be remembered is that when you drink water, don’t forget the people who dig the well. When you can stand alone, don’t forget to be grateful for their help when you are in the most difficult time.

4. Learn to solve problems independently and improve independent ability

Of course, you can’t rely too much on your brothers and sisters, their obligations are limited to guiding you to the beginning . As a stocked person, you have to achieve yourself. You must learn to take the initiative and be self-reliant. After all, you will become a senior brother/sister in the future.

For basic questions, try to search by yourself. When doing experiments, you must first understand the basic principles and operations, think more, and ask your brothers and sisters if you really don’t understand.

Otherwise, ask any questions. This kind of arrogance without making any effort will make the lab brothers and sisters feel that you are lazy, and sometimes cause the brothers and sisters to resent it.

5. Actively communicate with tutors

As the saying goes, if the mountain is not mine, I will come to the mountain. When many students are studying for graduate school, it is easy to continue the thinking of students in the undergraduate period, and they are afraid to communicate with their supervisors, so that they will subconsciously hide when they encounter a supervisor.

In fact, at the beginning of postgraduate study, you should have a candid talk with your supervisor : what problems are encountered in scientific research, how to solve them, what needs to be done to meet the graduation requirements, and what is the next timetable, so that you can There is a clear understanding of the scientific research career in the next few years.

When encountering a problem, don’t stand still and wait, take the initiative to contact the tutor, and seize every opportunity to “get familiar” in front of the tutor. For example, take the initiative to report the progress (once or twice a week or once every half month), take the initiative to show the teacher your experimental plan and experimental results, and avoid deviation from the general direction.

In view of the fact that “stocking-type” tutors are generally busy, you should also pay attention to skills when communicating with tutors . For example, before looking for them, it is best to make a phone call or send a WeChat in advance to make an appointment (don’t delay too long, preferably within a week). ), summarize all your questions first, and then ask them clearly at one time. It is recommended that everyone record a sound to ensure that everything is safe.

6. Use network resources to become a scientific research surfer

The academic circle is really small. Because it is small and specialized, it is easy for researchers in the same direction to gather in an academic discussion group. Therefore, you can go to the Internet to find more academic and subject-related public accounts, Weibo, exchange groups and other platforms, and then join them.

Don’t be shy about sharing your experience at this time , and don’t be shy to ask for advice. It is said that the masters are among the people, and maybe there are big cows in related fields in the group. Then, through the guidance of the boss, you can broaden your horizons, dispel your inner myths, and create a sense of empowerment for scientific research. Why not do it? Therefore, students who are stocked must know the truth of “using all resources”.

7. Make career plans in advance and make effective use of postgraduate time

The biggest advantage of becoming a stocking stream is that after being stocked by a mentor, you will have a lot of time to think about life. Then, on the premise of ensuring that your studies can be completed , think more, do more things, understand what you want, and make good use of your spare time.

If you plan to work after graduation , learn some practical skills that you think may be used in the follow-up work. At the same time, you also need to pay attention to industry trends, conduct appropriate internships, and accumulate resumes in advance.

If you plan to continue your studies , you must carefully think about the research ideas mentioned by your supervisor, learn more from the experience accumulated by your supervisor in scientific research, and at the same time learn to think independently. It is very important to have your own ideas. On this basis It is necessary to accumulate more data, publish more articles, and contact your favorite tutor in advance. In short, sharpening knives does not cut firewood by mistake, plan ahead and prepare in advance.

3. Competencies that should be possessed at the postgraduate level

Regarding postgraduate study, I would like to share with you the following suggestions:

1. About efficient study and time management.

A. Time management mindset:

Twenty- eight rule – The twenty-eight rule is to devote 80% of resources and time to 20% of the key benefits, and these 20% of the aspects can drive the development of the remaining 80%. If you want to cover everything, it is better to focus on breakthroughs.

Parkinson’s Law – By artificially setting deadlines, do things with high energy and density, or else start procrastinating indefinitely.

Tracy’s Law – The difficulty of any job is proportional to the square of the number of steps it performs. Eliminating unnecessary processes can help us save time and energy and improve execution. Again, the focus of executive power is on “doing” the action. In addition, it is also mentioned in the literature reading that simplifying the literature you have read into a few short sentences can make your memory more secure, which is also the application of this law.

B. Time Planning Tool:

Daily schedule – (You can write down 8 things to do every day in advance, either in chronological order, or by importance, or you can add a time node after each thing. You can prepare a book, or use Note on mobile phone or computer)

An easy to use software – todo todo. Everyone must have heard of the Pomodoro. This software can set the Pomodoro independently, including the time and name.

A schedule for long-term planning – a Gantt chart. It mainly displays projects and progress through bar graphs, which can be used for long-term planning. For example, the general time for taking the postgraduate entrance examination or postgraduate entrance examination can last for 3 months or more. The advantage of the Gantt chart is that it can effectively establish a big picture. For example, when I took the postgraduate entrance examination, the preparation time was about 3 months, and the subjects involved mainly included English (listening, composition, reading), politics, and Western comprehensive (physiology, biochemistry, pathology, internal medicine, surgery). You can use Excel to make a Gantt chart, the horizontal is time, the vertical is the project and the details within the project. Take the time to do a generalization, and you can keep track of your review progress.

2. Logical thinking and psychological construction.

After reading a master’s degree, the age is generally 22-26 years old. Although it is not old and young, but still need to face many choices and difficulties other than academics.

Personally, I think that academic and professional knowledge can improve our hard power, and the improvement of soft power, including humanities and building a good psychological quality and our own thinking logic framework, is also essential.

Soft power includes the ability to communicate with others and be able to express one’s own views clearly; it includes the ability to have one’s own logical judgments in life, the ability to make various choices and planning (whether to take a certificate, whether to take the exam, etc.); It is the ability to self-resolve when you are in a bad mood.

So how to improve the logical architecture? It boils down to 2 words: learn and summarize . The learning objects here can be good teachers and friends, or books (here, I recommend the book “The Road Less Traveled”); I don’t need to say more about the summary. For the record and arrangement of the good content learned, just like I A special notebook (paper/electronic file) will be prepared to record the words or cases that I think inspire me or inspire me. When you are sad or in your spare time, you will take it out and look at it to add positive energy to yourself. In addition, when you are in a bad mood, in addition to reading some past written notes, you can also exercise to decompress, sort out your emotions by yourself (find the reasons for the current state of fear and anxiety, and relieve yourself), talk to family and friends, Or consult a professional.

3. Self-directed learning ability and hard-working spirit

Learning ability includes all aspects of life and study. This is especially important for researchers and doctors.

Learning is like rowing upstream. When I was a child, the words that were catchy but incomprehensible now always feel profound and full of meaning when I think about it! (Haha, I accidentally revealed my age) The world, medicine, and scientific research are changing with each passing day. If you don’t study, you will be left behind. With an attitude of thinking about danger in times of peace, a firm belief in continuous learning and a humble learning attitude, I believe that you can go very far. Far.

As for how to learn, you must pay attention to efficiency + methods! At the postgraduate level, it is more about having the ability to learn independently. You must understand that you are the one who is responsible for yourself.

The means of acquisition include: knowledge of professional courses; knowledge gained from exchanges with classmates and roommates of different majors; online resources and courses. In terms of learning content, I personally do not agree with special utilitarianism, and only look at what is relevant to my major or thinks it is important.

Because the content and scope that you think are important may be biased, and secondly, the stone of the mountain can attack jade, and some things that are vague may bring you new thinking and realm. In short, keep an attitude of thirst for knowledge, do more research and learn more!

The spirit of enduring hardship refers to actively trying and doing things, and even “getting to work”. In fact, it is also for learning. A lot of knowledge and experience are obtained by helping others. This is very important for new graduate students. Some tasks given by teachers and seniors should be completed quickly and well, so that not only a good impression in the teacher’s mind, but also when encountering difficulties in practice, they can think more Solutions to unlock new skills. Know that knowledge is always mastered especially well in application. (You have to be discerning, and of course you must reject those that are too much).

In addition, some people may want to talk about how to get the favor and respect of teachers. I think good personal character and respect for teachers are very important. Of course, the most important thing is the cultivation of personal ability and the accumulation of scientific research strength. It doesn’t matter if you don’t get the teacher’s respect for the time being, just hide and recharge, your ability is not necessarily for the boss/teacher to see, but more for preparing for the future.

Finally, as a mentor in scientific research training, Teacher Pickled Cabbage has summarized 90 suggestions from mentors, brothers and sisters, literature writing, SCI artifacts, etc., and hopes to help medical scientific research Xiaobai!

Brothers and Sisters

  1. Rabbits don’t eat grass on the edge of the nest, fire and theft prevention brother!

  2. If you are handsome, please ask your senior sister for advice. If you are beautiful, please ask your senior brother to learn. If you are not handsome or beautiful, please read the book and watch the video.

  3. Cherish the opportunity for your brothers and sisters to work with you: first, to learn skills and knowledge, and second, to build character.

  4. Remember, age is always a sensitive word for single sisters.

  5. Don’t take evil for small things. A bad habit in a laboratory is often caused by a random behavior of a person.

  6. Brothers and sisters who are not relatives helped you, that is affection, you must be grateful; if you didn’t help you, don’t complain about others.

  7. It will be repaid sooner or later when you come out: The new brothers and sisters will pay back the debts of the brothers and sisters. Of course, after the unfortunate people are trapped by their brothers and sisters, they continue to be trapped by their brothers and sisters, and there is a moment of silence.

  8. Seniority has nothing to do with age, it is related to the order of entry, and it is related to moral ability.

  9. Be cautious in words and deeds, respect every brother and sister, and do not stand in line.

  10. But relying on senior brothers and sisters, their obligations are limited to leading you to the beginning. Learn to take the initiative and be self-reliant. After all, you will become a senior brother/sister in the future.

The Boss

  1. The boss is like a spring. If you are weak, he will be strong. If you are strong, he will be weak.

Strong is not only excellent, but also reflected in temperament. He is strong and he is strong, and the breeze caresses the hills;

  1. Be sure to be there when you are in the laboratory. The boss’s arrangements must be prepared in advance, so that the boss does not think you are lazy.

  2. Don’t blame the boss for all kinds of “concerns” about you. Once you are fully stocked, you will soon understand how confused life is and how confused it is.

  3. The boss abuses you thousands of times. Treat the boss like your first love. One day you will become a boss and abuse you all over the world…..

  4. Bosses are busy people and complain easily. Learn to understand, don’t be self-willed, and don’t have a deadlock relationship with your boss. After all, graduating from a defense and finding a job depend to some extent on the big tree of the boss.

  5. The boss’s face must be protected. Your own face is not important, and don’t care too much. In fact, everyone who understands understands it, and people who understand will think this kid is sensible.

  6. You reason with the boss, and the boss plays a rogue with you; you play a rogue with the boss, and he will reason with you.

  7. Don’t complain less and do more things. Don’t say anything bad about your boss, brothers and sisters. When you understand that “disasters come out of your mouth”, some things can no longer be undone.

  8. Adults (bosses) only see the pros and cons, while children (students) distinguish right from wrong.

  9. The teacher’s social resources are really good. Any mentor, former student, TA’s friend, etc., can provide you with some help at some point. They’ve been in this circle for years, and they’ve walked more bridges than you.

Personal practice

  1. People who spend all day in the laboratory are not necessarily outstanding, but those who have not been in the laboratory will definitely not be outstanding for a long time.

  2. A large laboratory is also a small society. Don’t exclude this environment, take the initiative to adapt and integrate, and you will be stronger in social work in the future.

  3. Keeping your clothes and lab bench neat and tidy will also be one of the impression scores of people around you.

  4. Reading literature and doing experiments, it is inevitable to feel tired. It is necessary to learn to talk and solve worries. Hee hee is healthier!

  5. Maybe your experiment is difficult to carry out, maybe your progress is not smooth, but you must not give up, there is always a solution, in the future you will understand how important today’s persistence is.

  6. You should cherish the use of public equipment. How you treat people and things will always have a weighing scale in their hearts.

  7. Don’t ignore the suppliers of consumables in the laboratory. You can ask them for many questions, whether it is the use and maintenance of equipment, or the learning of experimental techniques.

  8. Although doing scientific research is different from being a person, it is not too much to maintain sincerity and friendliness in words and deeds.

  9. It is long and hard to do experiments. It is not easy to work hard outside alone after the new year. If you have nothing to do, please call your relatives and friends.

  10. It is better to think more than to do more. I have seen many high-spirited classmates who think more than they do. Don’t dream in the sunset, act early in the morning.

Literature

  1. Read the review first, then the treatise. Read the review to understand the concept, and read the book to grasp the method.

  2. Start early to learn key skills before the brothers and sisters leave.

  3. Most articles read the abstract, and a few articles read the full text. Once you have mastered the skills of checking the full text, you will often enjoy getting the full text, so that you have no time to read the content of the article, let alone read the abstract. There are not many full texts that are really useful. Excessive pursuit of full texts is a waste and should not be taken to extremes. Of course, just looking at the abstract is not right.

  4. Concentrate on reading literature. Always forget to see. The more time you spend looking at literature, the more time you waste. Focused time watching is easier to connect and form an overall impression.

  5. Record and mark. Copy or print documents, directly mark or annotate with a pen. Documents in pdf or html format can be highlighted or the text color can be changed with the editor. This is another great way to avoid wasting time. Otherwise it’s like not watching.

  6. The articles to be cited should be read for yourself. The misinformation caused by citations is too numerous to mention.

  7. Pay attention to the reference value of the article. The impact factor of the publication and the number of citations of the article can reflect the reference value of the article. But pay attention to how other articles citing this article evaluate this article: for or against, to add or to correct.

  8. Communication is the best teacher. Difficulties in doing experiments are commonplace. What was your first reaction? Try again and again? give up? reading? All of this makes sense, but the first thing that should come to mind is communication. For people with status, private consultation shows your respect for them; for people of the same seniority, public discussions can make everyone speak freely and cautiously. Never build a car behind closed doors. An experiment has been tossing for half a year, and later someone tells you that it is a dead end, isn’t it a big deal?

  9. The highest level of ability is the ability to express. No matter how good a job is, it will ultimately depend on the approval of others. The ability to express, reflected in the ability to write and speak, is a quality that needs to be cultivated for a long time.

  10. Learn English well, don’t study foreign languages. Today, whether you go to Japan or Europe, academic communication is already dominated by English. You don’t have to regret that you can’t read an article in French, the person who wrote that article is worrying about not learning English well. If you are not proficient in English, don’t go to the second foreign language for the time being.

article writing

  1. Read 10 articles and summarize 100 common sentence patterns and common phrases. Review often. Note that the author of the literature must be a native English speaker, and the content of the literature must be related to your major. This is a by-product of the usual reading of literature.

  2. Find 3-5 articles with technical routes and statistical methods close to your subject, and read them intensively. Write a draft of your thesis. It should be written in a consistent format for title, authors, abstract, background, purpose, materials, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references, legends, figures, tables, photographs, and descriptions. The advantage of this is that it can be easily changed to any magazine format.

  3. For each part of the dissertation, especially a specific method and a specific aspect to be discussed, find 5-8 literatures to read each to enrich and improve. The discussion here only involves English expressions and is only recommended for those who lack English writing experience.

  4. Find the manuscript contract of the journal you want to submit, then find 2-3 articles of the journal, and rewrite it according to its format. Note that each rewrite must be saved as a different file name, in order to avoid problems and cannot be restored.

  5. Find an English master to change it. If you can’t find the right person, go to a company that provides English correction and improvement (not translation) editing services, which is highly recommended to those who have money and time.

  6. ​​When downloading the electronic version (caj, pdf, html), paste the title of the article as the file name. Note that the file name cannot have special characters, and delete \ / : * ? < > | and newline characters. Set the file name according to the same habit every time to prevent repeated downloads.

  7. Different themes are stored in different folders. The title of the folder should be short, such as: PD, LTP, PKC, NO.

  8. The documents that have been read are grouped into subfolders, at least the useful ones should be separated from the useless ones.

  9. The important documents are numbered 001, 002, 003 in front of the file names according to their importance, and then the icons are arranged by name, and the most important documents are listed first.

  10. Copy or print documents, punch holes with a hole punch (¥10-15), and load them into hard folders (¥10-20/piece)

how to read literature

51. Goals: aimless is ineffective, and it is ineffective if you can’t grasp the key points. Before choosing a topic, you may be in a state of confusion for a while, not knowing where to start. I read a lot of literature indiscriminately, but I don’t know why. Under the guidance of mentors and inspired by peers, some people can quickly clarify their goals and have a definite purpose, and the entry starts from here. Even if the instructor does not guide and does not set a topic, you must first set a specific question to read the literature. Whether you do these things in the future or not, it’s better than having no goals, guaranteed gains. The general principles of scientific research are common.

52. Hierarchy: For a specific topic, the relevant literature is divided into three levels: research direction, research field, and research topic. For example, someone studies the directed differentiation of stem cells to treat Parkinson’s disease. For him, the research direction is Parkinson’s disease, and the research field is stem cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease. The research topic is a substance that induces stem cells to differentiate into dopamine-secreting nerve cells. When reading a document, you must distinguish which level the document in your hand belongs to, which determines how much you have to master it. Literature at the research direction level: generally involved, basic knowledge, subject level, understand the current major progress and trends, and reach the professional level; research field level literature: understand the focus and hotspots, the topics that have been/is/will be carried out, and reach the expert level ;Research subject-level literature: To be comprehensive, to understand the history, status quo, prospects, main methods and means, to reach the No1 expert level. Correctly distinguish the level of the article, in order to use the energy to the idea.

53. Format: Literature in the broadest sense includes all published forms that can be read. Textbooks, monographs, compilations of conference abstracts, journals, web pages, and even ppt files. For example, to understand the basic form of immune response, it is best to read textbooks; to refer to the stereotaxic atlas of the rat brain, it is best to read monographs; to know the latest progress, it is best to consult journals; to understand the research trends of others, it is best It is to attend the conference or read the conference proceedings. Don’t look for the wrong source of information.

54. Extent: Depending on the level of familiarity with the literature, the way of reading the literature varies greatly. Novices learn to read, word by word, to figure out the details, and master the most basic knowledge points. The first ten or dozens of articles should be read intensively, and the most important ones should even be recited. Experienced search readers are familiar with common patterns and general routines of various studies, able to quickly extract key information, grasp ideas, and often read out of the usual order. Some people read pictures and talk, some people read numbers. Expert critical reading, to the point where the problem lies. Virtually no paper is invulnerable. Novices must be steady, veterans must be accurate, and experts must be ruthless. The representatives of novice, veteran, and expert are graduate students, tutors, and reviewers, but graduate students who study hard can completely transform from novice to expert in 3 years. Only when you have a clear position on yourself can you choose the right way to read.

55. Contradictions: I read too much literature and my mind is full of information. The father said that the public was reasonable, and the mother said that the mother was reasonable, but they were at a loss? In order to solve this problem, evidence-based medicine divides the level of clinical trial evidence; similarly, we should also pay attention to the strength of experimental evidence when we look at the literature. Finding contradictions is the first step; finding similarities and differences is the second step; thinking and solving them is the third step. Finding the source of the contradiction from the derivation of contradictory conclusions, if you can jump out of the circle at this time, do not follow the fixed mindset, and start from the original scientific problem, “there is no way to win, there is a way”, you will really reach another realm. Why translate a foreigner’s review and lie about his own review? Why repeat the experiments done by others and lie about your own ideas?

Literature Citation Errors

  1. Knowing but not citing. Obviously borrowed from the similar work of the peers, but deliberately did not cite the similar work of the peers, so that his work looked “novel” and “leading”. In fact, the reviewers may be peers.

  2. Taken out of context. Deliberately intercept the part that the author is trying to deny to support his point of view.

  3. Quoted inaccurate. I didn’t read the original text carefully, the citation was wrong.

  4. False source. Certain words have unreliable sources (such as informal or non-academic publications) and are not attributed. Common in some statistics.

  5. Blind self-citation. Not to explain the relationship between my own work and previous work, but simply to increase the number of citations of my article.

write graduation thesis

  1. Make an outline first. It is a bad habit to write down without making an outline. A few hundred words is no problem, a few thousand words are difficult, and tens of thousands of words are difficult. The writing outline must be listed, and then enriched and improved to ensure the coherence of ideas and the balance of word count.

  2. Usually write more. Summarize the work in stages in a timely manner, write more articles and submit more contributions. In the final stage, combining these words organically, it is a very good graduation thesis.

  3. Don’t list all the data. In order to ensure the weight of the graduation thesis, graduate students often observe more indicators. But graduation thesis is not the more data the better. Be sure to discard data that is less relevant to the subject. Otherwise, it will either appear cumbersome and loose, or it will become a flaw.

  4. Print Modifications. Modifying it directly on the computer will miss a lot of errors. To minimize any errors, be sure to print them out and correct them.

  5. Let others point out mistakes. Modify it yourself, still limited by personal habits. Mistakes are there, but they turn a blind eye. Let someone else point you out, whether or not they are in the same major as you.

SCI Powerful Weapons

66. whiteSmoke

ways to obtain:

http://www.whitesmoke.com/

Recommended reasons: 1. Language processing, that is, the polishing function. Enter a paragraph that needs to be checked, select checktext, it will display the results of grammar check and spell check, as well as some word replacement hints and punctuation change hints to help improve the sentence of the article. 2. Sentence and paragraph translation, this software can meet the needs of translation. 3. Template writing function. The software provides many templates, ranging from life-like apology templates to student admissions letters and fund application instructions.

67. Academic Phrasebank

How to get it: http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/

Recommended reason: The use of this website is quite foolish. Each option in the navigation bar of the webpage (see the figure below) corresponds to the introduction of the paper (Introduction), how to cite the citation part, how to describe the experimental method (Methods), and the experimental results (Results). ), Discussion and Conclusions. The bottom of each label will simply tell you how to write this part, matters needing attention, verb tense, etc., so that you can click wherever your paper is written. Another amazing thing about this website is that it not only gives the example sentences written in each part, but also builds the corresponding writing framework.

68. Researcher’s Home

How to get it: http://www.home-for-researchers.com/static/index.html#/

Recommended reason: A very useful SCI writing artifact, whether it is the text or the legend, you can automatically generate sentences expressing similar meanings in many published papers when you enter Chinese. Moreover, the website also provides journal recommendations, which can be said to send Buddha to the West in one step.

69. Zhiyun Literature Translator

How to get: http://i.zhiyunwenxian.cn/

Recommended reason:

Can be used as a pdf reader, translate and draw lines while watching pdf, and have many pdf note-taking functions. The translated corpus comes from Google’s biological professional translation, which is more accurate and can be switched between Chinese-English and English-Chinese translations.

70. StyleWriter

How to get it: http://www.stylewriter-usa.com/

Recommended reason: StyleWriter is a retouching artifact. In addition to basic functions such as proofreading, terminology, and sentences, the most prominent point is that it can rate your articles (Bog index) and provide suggestions for improving the readability of your articles.

71. Grammarly

How to get it: https://www.grammarly.com/

Recommended reason: A very powerful grammar correction software to help polish English expressions. At present, the web version, Mac version and Windows version are available. The web version provides extension plug-ins for a variety of browsers, and if you are lucky enough to have a Windows system, Grammarly also provides a Word plug-in for you in good conscience. Grammarly enables real-time grammatical error finding, as well as detailed explanations and corrections. As you write, tell you where you went wrong, explain how it went wrong, and give example sentences to tell you how to correct it.

72. Ginger

How to get it: http://www.gingersoftware.com/

Recommended reason: It is known as the best English writing polishing tool in the world. In addition to providing word spelling and grammar check functions, it also provides sentence rewriting, translation, dictionary and reading functions. At the lowest end of the Ginger webpage, English grammar and vocabulary learning materials are also provided. Ginger currently only provides PC-side software, PC-side Word plug-in and Chrome/Safari plug-in. The web version of Ginger needs to be entered sentence by sentence, click to check sentence by sentence. Sentence-by-sentence checking is a feature of Ginger, which detects grammatical errors in sentences more accurately, but is slower to detect.

73. 1Checker

How to get: http://www.1checker.com/

Recommended reason: 1Checker not only provides online versions, Windows and Mac clients, but also Word plug-ins, but does not provide browser extension plug-ins, and cannot check spelling and grammar errors in web page input text data and emails. Install the software: Open 1Checker, you can directly import your own Word document, and click Check. Checking is slow. A dictionary is also provided so that you can look up words at any time.

74. ProWritingAid

How to get it: https://prowritingaid.com/

Recommended reason: There are online and desktop versions, and a very detailed report will be given after entering a piece of text. The classification in the report is more detailed. It can not only check for spelling mistakes, but also check whether the words used are cumbersome or vague, abstract and meaningless, whether they are too colloquial, whether the length of sentences and paragraphs is appropriate, whether there are plagiarism and other errors.

75. Nounplus

How to get it: https://www.nounplus.net/grammarcheck/

Recommended reason: The grammar algorithm of Nounplus tool mainly focuses on grammar and syntax, and has more than 1000 commonly used grammar error screening mechanisms. You can also install a mobile app to use it, with Android and iOS mobile apps available.

76. Hemingway

How to get: http://www.hemingwayapp.com/

Recommended reason: Open the website, click Write on the right, you can type directly, or copy and paste. Real-time article statistics are provided on the right side of the website page: Paragraphs (paragraphs); Sentences (sentences); Words (words); Characters (letters). At the same time, Hemingway will grade your article. In the article, five colors will also be used to highlight the sentences that may “need to be changed”, reminding users to make changes to improve the readability of the article. Specific instructions can be found under the real-time statistics.

77. Virtual Writing Tutor

How to get it: https://virtualwritingtutor.com/

Why You Need To Go: This free online grammar checker or proofreader helps writers count words, check spelling, check grammar and punctuation, check paraphrases, improve word choice, self-assess use of target structures, and master English pronunciation. And also a good tutorial, the modularity is nice.

78. WordHipp

How to get: http://www.wordhippo.com/

Recommended reason: A dictionary database website that can help you query any English word, it has some interesting functions such as: English word explanation, synonyms, antonyms, rhyming words, English example sentences, English translation, look up words, English word forms, how to pronounce words And the origin of the English name, etc. Having this website may help your SCI writing.

79. Google Scholar

How to get: https://scholar.google.com.hk/?hl=zh-CN

Recommended reason: You need fq or use Google mirroring, put the keywords or sentences you need into Google, you can see how others write such sentences, you can also add double quotation marks for advanced search, but Google Scholar also includes a lot of Sentences written by Chinese can be further refined and revised on the preliminary screening results.

80. SpellCheckPlus

How to get it: http://spellcheckplus.com/

Why You Need To Go : SpellCheckPlus is a free online check for spelling, grammar, and English commentary to help you learn how to use it correctly. Find confusing words and phrases. At the same time, English mistakes commonly made by foreign students who are not native English speakers are detected. The page is simple and the operation is simple.

81. Dictionary of synonyms or antonyms

How to get it: https://www.thesaurus.com/browse/obtain?s=t

Recommended reason: When words with the same meaning are used repeatedly in the text, you can consider querying and replacing them.

82. Linggle English Writing Teacher

How to get it: https://www.linggle.com/

Recommended reason: To develop a habit of excerpting good words and sentences when watching Paper. Linggle can help you when you want to use a good phrase you’ve excerpted, but you don’t know how to write it backwards and forwards.

83. Survival Curve Online Maker

How to get it: http://111.229.212.9:3838/Survival-Plot/

Recommended reason: You can upload your own data and easily draw a beautiful survival curve with a click of the mouse.

84. languagetool

How to get it: https://languagetoolplus.com/plugins

Recommended reason: There are browser and word versions, free and paid versions, which can proofread English writing.

85. ESODA

How to get it: http://www.esoda.org/guide/

Recommended reason: ESODA is an information assistant suitable for Chinese English writing produced by Tsinghua HCI Lab Studio. It has widely collected a large number of papers in various disciplines as a database. Through intelligent language analysis and other algorithms, users can use various way to search for authentic English collocations and example sentences.

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